Who knows what a guru is?


[前] ぐる in Webster 1913

ぐる in OED (Oxford English Dictionary)

英語系辞書の総本山、OED にみる guru の用法です。

手元に CD-ROM 版が置いてあるんですけど、それが使えるマシンがない^^; ので、紙メディアでコピーしてきたものをセッセと写経です。 何かが間違ってる.. (-_-;;

[ Last modified: 1999/3 ]


Also 7,9 goru, 9 gooroo. [a. Hindi guru, Hidustani gurū a teacher, priest; Skr. guru orig. an adj. `weighty, grave, dignified'.] A Hindu spiritual teacher or head of a religious sect. Also in gen. or trivial use: an influential teacher; a mentor; a pundit.

1613Purchas, Pilgrimage (1614) 500 They have others which they call Gurupi, learned Priests. Ibid. (1626) 520 A famous Prophet of the Ethnikes, named Goru. 1810 T. Williamson, E Ind. Vade Mecum II. 317 Persons of this class often keep little schools .. and then are designated gooroos. 1811Mrs. Sherwood, Henry & Bearer 32, So much was he afraid of offending his gooroo. 1826W. B. Hockley, Pandurang Hari III, xii. 347 He was in want of a guru, a religious instructor, to his household. 1832 G. C. Mundy, Pen & pencil Sk. Ind., I.184, Its founder, a holy goru. 1867Dixon, New Amer, I. xxxi. 330 Except the guru of Bombay, no priest on earth has so large a power [etc.] 1877H. P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, II. ii. 114 It is in the presence of his instructor, the guru .. that he is suddenly placed face to face with the unknown presence. 1884 in 1st Rep. Comm. Soc. Psychical Research (1885) 58 A letter .. being opened it was found to contain a distinct order from my Guru that I should stop at Calcutta. 1940H. G. Wells, Babes in Darkling Wood, III, i, 245, I ask you, Stella, as your teacher, as your Guru, so to speak, not to say a word more about it. 1949Koestler, God that Failed, 40, My self-confidence as a Guru had gone. 1957Sunday Times, 12 may 9/3, I learnt to love French poetry from it, a schoolboy in a class of one, with my guru Mr de Solge. 1967 New Scientist, 14 Sept. 559/1, Marshall McLuhan is (or is about to be turned into) one of those gurus whom the United States hungers for more than most nations. 1968 Times, 4 Oct. 11/5, In what was obviously intended to be a sneering reference, the Prime Minister in his facile glibness.. described Mr. Enoch Powell as `the guru of Wolverhampton'. 1969Eve's Weekly (Bombay), 20 Dec. 11/4, Hannah Sahney, the chief instructress for the Indian Airlines' hostesses, is a guru to many of her young trainees.

b. Comb. guru jacket,

a high-necked jacket fastened at the front by a vertical row of many small buttons; also ellipt.

1966Vogue, Nov. 21/2, Most colourful man's shop, Testa's..newest here--the guru jacket in brilliant red, blue or white silk or wool buttoned up high Chinese style. 1968Guardian, 29 Aug. 5/4, The tailors began it all three years ago with the `guru' jacket,..the guru with its high neckband notched at the throat and its multiple buttons.

Hence guruship [see -ship].

1848H. H. Wilson, Wks.(1862) II. 128, Their ninth Guru..was publicly put to death in 1675..at the instigation of a competitor for the Guruship. 1885 F. Hall in Nation (N.Y.) XLI. 120/1,The four divided between them the Guruship of the new superstition..from 1504 till 1581.

んー。何かよくわかんないですね (^_^;

17世紀前半に登場してくるってことは、やっぱり、インドとイギリスが 直接接触するようになってから英語圏に入ってきた単語であると 考えてよさそうなんですよね。でも「インドにおけるパンディット」 ではなく「knowledge resources for others (and leaders)」という 意味、つまり、インド人に限定されない普通の「せんせー」「エラい人」的意味への 変遷が、よくわからないですね。"guru"と呼ばれてる人が 何者なのかというところまでは、さすがに辞書の用例だけではわからない‥ ただ 1940年の用例: "as your teacher, as your Guru" は ソレっぽいかなあ、とは思いますけど。

それはさておき。guru jacket という用例も載ってますね。 でも「インドの導師が着ているような衣服」なのかと言われますと . . うーん。わからんす (^_^;;